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Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on March 2, The term "alcohol" has been synonymous with "spirituous" liquids for the past years. The history of alcohol consumption, along with codes limiting its consumption go back to B. There are four types of alcohol: methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, propyl alcohol and butyl alcohol. The other three types, methyl, propyl and butyl alcohol, if consumed can result in blindness and death, even in relatively small doses. Alcohol, or ethanol, is the intoxicating agent found in beer, wine and liquor.
Alcohol is produced by fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. Other plants, such as the cactus or sugar cane may be used in liquor production. Fourteen grams or about 0. Examples of this amount may include one twelve ounce beer 5 percent alcoholeight to nine ounces of malt liquor 7 percent alcohol5 ounces of wine 12 percent alcohol or 1.
In the U. All states now prohibit the purchase of alcohol by youth under the age of 21 years since It is illegal to sell or buy alcohol for anyone under the age of Is ethyl alcohol drinkable to The Office of the Surgeon General, alcohol is used by more young people in the United States than tobacco or illicit drugs, resulting in a serious public health concern.
Alcohol is a clear, volatile liquid that is highly soluble in water. The absorption of alcohol ethanol is decreased by food, especially fatty food.
Absorption occurs primarily from the intestine. Alcohol distributes into body water. Blood-alcohol concentration BAC is dependent upon weight and body fat, amount and time frame of alcohol consumption, and food effects. Drinking alcohol over shorter time periods or in larger quantities and on an empty stomach will lead to a higher BAC. In all 50 U. Regulations are more strict in many states for drivers less than 21 years of age.
Alcohol is metabolized primarily 90 percent in the liver. Acetaldehyde is further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase to acetic acid, and eventually to carbon dioxide and water. Alcohol excretion by the lungs constitutes the basis for the Breathalyzer test given by law enforcement who may suspect drinking and driving. Alcohol elevates the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA gamma amino butyric acid and reduces nerves als along that neuronal pathway. Because of this action, alcohol is known as a central nervous system CNS depressant, and lowers both cognitive and physical capacities.
Combination with other CNS depressants, such as opiatesbarbituratesor benzodiazepines can have additive and dangerous effects. Long-term alcohol misuse is associated with liver and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and nervous system damage as well as psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial personality disorder. Alcohol, and its consumption can cause a of marked changes in behavior. Even low doses ificantly impair judgment and coordination. In small amounts, it can induce feelings of relaxation and tranquillity, suppress anxiety, and in some, inspire feelings of confidence.
However, as the dose is increased, normally beyond six ounces of proof alcohol, the pleasant euphoric feelings begin to give way to feelings of depression. Intoxication occurs because the liver is unable to metabolize more than one ounce of alcohol every hour. Therefore, when Is ethyl alcohol drinkable person consumes more alcohol than the body can metabolize, intoxication occurs.
Repeated use of alcohol can lead to increased tolerance that in turn le to greater amounts required to achieve its desired effects. Once the body develops Is ethyl alcohol drinkable dependence to alcohol, a sudden cessation of its intake is likely to produce withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms can be life-threatening and include severe anxiety, tremors, hallucinations, and convulsions. Alcohol can be lethal if the amount of alcohol reaches a concentration above milligrams of alcohol per milliliters of blood 0.
Death from respiratory depression can occur with severe alcohol intoxication, and this can be hastened if alcohol is combined with CNS depressant medications. Mixing alcohol with caffeine, either in premixed drinks or by adding liquor to energy drinks has become a common way for younger crowds to consumer alcohol. With this dangerous combination, drinkers may feel somewhat less intoxicated than if they had consumed alcohol alone.
However, they are just as impaired and more likely to take risks. This drinking practice often takes place in and around college campuses. Excessive use of alcohol can lead to alcoholismor alcohol dependence.
There are four cardinal symptoms in alcoholism: craving, loss of control, physical dependence, and tolerance. A clinician is able to diagnose alcoholism based upon a specific set of criteria published by the American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization.
Drinking and driving in numerous car accidents, injuries, and deaths each year. Inthere were over 10, crash fatalities with a driver BAC of 0. Of these drivers, fifty-six percent had had a BAC of 0. However, sincealcohol-related fatalities have dropped from 60 percent to 38 percent in Alcoholism is a treatable disease, but is considered a lifelong, chronic illness that requires counseling, support and often medication to control cravings. Relapses are a common problem for alcoholics. Risks for developing alcoholism include a genetic predisposition and lifestyle practices.
Stress, ease of alcohol availability, and peer groups can increase the risk for alcoholism. The prevalence of alcohol use in the U. Adults from Is ethyl alcohol drinkable National Health Interview Survey, the percent of adults 18 years of age and older who were current regular drinkers at least 12 drinks in the past 12 months was The percent of adults who were current infrequent drinkers drinks in the past 12 months was lower, at Alcohol use and binge drinking among teens is a major public health concern.
Inalcohol use among high school students was reported in 1 out of every 2 students. Incurrent alcohol use rates among high school students decreased to 42 percent, with 24 percent reporting episodic heavy or binge drinking. In10 percent of high school students reported driving during the past 30 days when they had been drinking alcohol. Twenty-eight percent of students reported riding in a car or other vehicle during the past 30 days driven by someone else who had been drinking alcohol. No amount of alcohol consumption can be considered safe in pregnancy. Alcohol can be toxic to the developing baby, not only in the first three months of pregnancy when important organs are developing, but at any time, as brain development continues throughout pregnancy.
Damage can also occur early in pregnancy before a woman might know she is pregnant. Although there is no known safe amount of alcohol that a woman can drink, the risk for miscarriage, birth defects, growth retardation and mental defects increase the more alcohol a pregnant woman consumes in one setting and the more frequently she drinks overall. Women who are planning to become pregnant Is ethyl alcohol drinkable who have recently learned they are pregnant should not drink alcohol.
It is wise to seek the advice of a health care provider if alcohol cannot be stopped prior to conception and throughout pregnancy. Is ethyl alcohol drinkable Generals Office warn women not to drink during pregnancy. Mothers who drink alcohol excessively during pregnancy may give birth to infants with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD or fetal alcohol syndrome FAS that can include irreversible physical and mental changes to the baby. FASD may include life-long learning disabilities, poor memory, hyperactivity, poor attention span, speech or language delays and other disorders.
FAS may lead to growth retardation, mental disorders, skeletal and facial abnormalities, and heart defects. It is important not to drink at all while pregnant, prior to a planned pregnancy or if effective birth control is not used.
Consumption of small amounts of alcohol are reported to have beneficial cardiovascular health benefits, particularly the consumption of red wine. Red wine contains substances such as resveratrol and flavonoids that have antioxidant properties and may lend cardioprotective effects to the heart. However, only small amounts of wine or alcohol are suggested to be beneficial. Antioxidants may help prevent heart disease by increasing levels of high density lipoprotein HDLor "good" cholesterol and protecting against artery damage.
Antioxidants in red wine are called polyphenols and may be protective for heart vessel linings. Resveratrol is a polyphenol that comes from the skins of red grapes.
The cardioprotective effect alcohol may not be restricted to red wine. Some research studies have shown that moderate amounts of all types of alcohol benefit your heart, not just alcohol found in red wine. However, more research is needed. It is not suggested to start drinking for prevention of heart disease. Neither the American Heart Association nor the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute recommend starting to drink alcohol simply to prevent heart disease. Alcohol can lead to other health issues and may be Is ethyl alcohol drinkable. Only moderate drinking is recommended for those that already drink.
Moderate drinking is defined as an average of two drinks a day for men and one drink a day for women. A drink is defined as 12 ounces milliliters, or mL of beer, 5 ounces mL of wine or 1. The treatment of alcoholism requires strong family, social and medical support. Treatment for alcohol dependence usually involves a wide array of interventions, including stepped therapy, group support, individual counseling, and medications.
Some patients may opt to Alcoholic Anonymous AAa group support organization available for men and women since Medical treatments for alcohol dependence include three approved oral medications - disulfiram Antabusenaltrexone Depade, Revia and acamprosate Campral - and an injectable long-acting form of naltrexone Vivitrol.
Use of these medical treatments may work to help reduce drinking, relapses, and lead to full recovery and abstinence from alcohol.
According to one review, naltrexone and acamprosate have strong evidence and are recommended as treatment options for alcohol dependence in conjunction with behavioral therapy. Disulfiram has not been shown to increase abstinence rates or decrease relapse rates or cravings compared with placebo, and it is not recommended for routine use in primary care. You should avoid the use of alcohol while being treated with Invega Sustenna paliperidone palmitate. Combining alcohol with Invega Sustenna can increase side effects like dizziness, drowsiness, and trouble concentrating.
This may also affect your ability to make decisions, think clearly, or react quickly. Continue reading. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this applies to your personal circumstances. Alcohol Medically reviewed by Drugs. Health Hazards Due to Alcohol Abuse Long-term alcohol misuse is associated with liver and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and nervous system damage as well as psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial personality disorder.Is ethyl alcohol drinkable
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